Human Nutrition is the intake and adjustment of substances essential for growth, life, and also reproduction. From a biological point of view, nutrition provides the body with energy sources, substrates for biosynthesis, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Undernutrition or overnutrition is the leading cause of metabolic disorders. So-called physiological nutrition norms are scientifically substantiated in quantitative and qualitative aspects of the diet. Human nutrition fully covering the human body’s needs for energy and providing it with all the exogenous substances necessary for metabolism in sufficient quantities and also optimal (balanced) ratios.
There are standards developed by the World Health Organization and approved in individual countries. In Russia, there are “Norms of physiological needs energy and nutrients for various groups of the population of the Russian Federation” Methodological recommendations of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation.
The daily requirement for nutrients is set either following, Which are calculated for an “average” man weighing 70 kg and an “average” woman weighing 60 kg. Summing the individual need of an individual in g/kg of body weight or per 1000 kcal of energy consumption.
The condition for effective absorption and assimilation of human nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract is the digestion of human nutrition to monomers during abdominal and parietal digestion. The degree of digestion of nutrients depends on their pre-processing during cooking or mechanical processing during chewing.
Some food substances are not hydrolyze in the gastrointestinal tract (vegetable polysaccharide cellulose) or not broken down. Thus, food products are not captivated by the body, and when eating mixed food of animal and vegetable origin, its digestibility in caloric value is about 90-95%.
The need of a particular person for various food components is the amount and ratio of nutrients. It depends on age, physical or mental stress, state of rest, or psycho-emotional stress.
Therefore, the definition of the norms and nature of nutrition, although it should take into account general physiological requirements and recommendations, can only strictly individualize.
The need for protein is an evolutionarily establish dominant in human nutrition to certify the optimal physiological intake of essential amino acids.
With a positive nitrogen balance during periods of growth and development and during intensive reparative processes, the need for protein per unit body weight is naturally higher than that of an average healthy person.
The criteria for the qualitative assessment of food protein are digestibility, biological value, and the actual quality of the protein. Protein digestibility characterizes the proportion of nitrogen absorbed in the body from the total amount consumed with food. The biological value indicates the degree of nitrogen retention and the efficiency of its utilization to maintain nitrogen balance.
Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water, fiber – all these are nutrients. They are the essential food components for human health.
Nutrients that do not provide the body with energy – minerals, water, fiber, vitamins – are no less critical than “fuel.” These are “construction and consumables.”
Protein is essential for the growth of all tissues and their repair. Protein helps in the production of antibodies, hormones, enzymes. For all chemical reactions occurring in the body, these substances are necessary. Cereals, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, eggs, and dairy products are significant protein sources.
Fiber is another biologically essential human nutrient that the human body needs. Fiber is an impenetrable part of plant foods – dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates. Dietary fiber helps the body cleanse itself of harmful and toxic substances.
At the same time, complex carbohydrates are “food” for the intestinal microflora, on the well-being of which the health of the body and its immunity depend. Fiber-rich foods reduce the risk of developing gastrointestinal diseases and help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. Fiber may also reduce the risk of breast and colon cancer.
Water is an indispensable component of the life of the body. The implementation of most body functions occurs due to water. Brain cells are the most sensitive to lack of water. Brain cells are constantly removing toxic products that appear due to their activity.
Satisfaction with the plastic and energy needs of the body serves as a criterion for the formation of nutritional norms. In turn, dietary standards determine food intake on scientific studies of the metabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, water, minerals, and vitamins in various population groups.
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