One of the main nutritional factors that affect health, performance, and active longevity are micronutrients – vitamins and vitamin-like substances, micro-and macro elements. The body does not produce all the necessary micronutrients and must obtain them in a ready-made form, such as food. Unfortunately, we cannot store these substances. Macronutrients are food substances (proteins, fats, and carbohydrates) necessary for a person in quantities measured in grams and provide energy, plastic, and other body needs.
The micronutrients are very useful substances (vitamins, minerals, trace elements) contained in food in minimal amounts – milligrams or micrograms. They does not provide energy to the body but play an essential role in the digestion of food and implementing the processes of growth, adaptation, and development.
The Minerals are vital components of nutrition with a wide variety of physiological functions. They play an essential role in plastic processes, the formation, and the construction of body tissues, in particular the bones of the skeleton. Minerals are needed to maintain the acid-base balance in the body, create a specific concentration of hydrogen ions in tissues and cells, interstitial and intercellular fluids, and give them osmotic properties that ensure the ordinary course of metabolism.
Their role in the activity of the endocrine glands (for example, iodine in the thyroid gland) and participation in enzymatic processes have remained confirmed.
The study of minerals as an indispensable part of nutrition and the determination of their role in the body are closely related to the prevention of iron deficiency anemia, endemic goiter, osteoporosis, rickets, fluorosis, and some other diseases. And also Minerals are involved in the neutralization of acids and prevent the development of acidosis. They are essential in the normalization of water metabolism in the body. The biologically highly active connections of this group are substances with also other nutrients, for example, calcium with protein (casein), cobalt with vitamin B12, etc., have been revealed. The role of minerals in the hematopoiesis, tissue respiration, and metabolism has remained confirmed.
The chemical elements are free state and many chemical compounds are part of all cells and tissues of the human body. They are a building material, the essential catalysts for the various biochemical reactions, indispensable and irreplaceable participants in the growth and development of the body, the metabolism, and adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
The physiological effect of various elements depends on their dose. Therefore, toxic elements are (arsenic, mercury, antimony, cadmium, etc.) At low concentrations can act on the body as a medicine (thus having a cyanogenetic effect). In contrast, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, and some other elements in high concentrations may have a pronounced toxic effect. For the implementation of a vital functions, each part has an optimal range of concentrations. Also with a deficiency or excessive accumulation of elements in the body, profound changes can occur that cause a violation of the activity of enzymes directly or indirectly dependent on them.
In the body, chemical elements are predominantly in the form of compounds, the excessive formation or decay of which can lead to disruption of the so-called metal-ligand homeostasis and subsequently to the development of pathological changes. Elements – metals and ligands (for example, glutamic, aspartic, lipoic, ascorbic acids) can act as activators or inhibitors of various enzymes, which determines their significant role in the development and treatment of multiple diseases
The micronutrients are the elements that we need in small amounts. Iron, cobalt, chromium, iodine, copper, zinc, and molybdenum are micronutrients. And the deficiency of either nutrient affects growth and development.
The micronutrients, often called as vitamins and minerals. are vital to healthy development disease prevention, and wellbeing. Except for vitamin D, also micronutrients are not produced in the body and must derive from the diet.
Though people only need small micronutrients, consuming the recommended amount is essential. The Micronutrient are shortages can have devastating significances. At smallest half of children worldwide younger than five years of age suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The World Health Organization recommends the multiple intercessions to address nutrition deficiencies external.
There are seven essential plant nutrient elements defined as micronutrients [boron (B), zinc (Zn), manganese , iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), chlorine (Cl)]. They constitute less than 1% of the dry weight of most plants.
The folic acid is a different form of vitamin B9. Folate is a essential in the early days of fetal growth for healthy brain and spinal cord development. Ensuring sufficient folate levels in women before conception can reduce neural tube defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly.
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